Prolific Meiji-period artist Kawanabe Kyōsai (1831-1889), well-known in the West for his darkly humorous illustrations, was commissioned by Scottish surgeon and Japanese art collector William Anderson (1842-1900) to produce a large number of comic paintings in the 1870s. Anderson’s collection, which today forms the core of the Japanese paintings at the British Museum, included the handful of fanciful depictions of hell shown below.

Enma King of Hell

Enmas Judgment

Protest to Enma

Burning at the Steak

Torture in Hell

Monster Assault